The plate struts are screwed into the piano. On the hitch-pin panel they rest on, and are screwed to steel stanchions (stand-offs). These small blocks of metal form the head of a bolt which passes through the hitch-pin panel and into the inner rim. In the front there is a similar arrangement, with small metal blocks, whose lower part forms a machine screw that passes through the shelf, and is secured from below with a round nut. Between these are a series of nose, or pillar bolts, that pierce the sound-board, and likewise through the strut, then being retained at the top by a slotted brass nut. These nuts were covered over by a recent type of resinous putty (Bondo) and were so badly damaged by a previous removal, that they had to be tapped out with a small punch.
Above, the piano with all the struts removed.